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PROMINENT INDIVIDUALS OF GUJARAT – 1

Hello friends, welcome to Indian Art & Culture. Now we can talk about some Prominent Individuals Of Gujarat. This one is part one of the Prominent Individuals. The second part comes soon. So let’s start today’s topic…

AMBALAL SAKARLAL DESAI (1844-1914)

AMBALAL SAKARLAL DESAIThe first Gujarati to graduate from Mumbai University, Ambalal lived in the Amrutlal pol in Ahmedabad. After completing M.A.L.L.B., he was appointed the Chief Justice of the Vadodara High Court in 1899. He was the chairman of the reception committee at the 18th National Congress Convention at Ahmedabad in 1902. At the Benaras Congress convention in 1905, Ambalal put forward the idea of the Swadeshi movement and invited Bengali youths to leam the textile trade. An ardent economist and historian, Ambalal Desai also headed the Ahmedabad Vidya Sabha and led the third Gujarati Sahitya Parishad at Rajkot. An advocate for women education, he protested against prevalent social customs.

AMBALAL SARABHAI (1890-1967)

AMBALAL SARABHAI
Image Credit: ase.life

Educated at Gujarat College, Ahmedabad Ambalal Sarabhai joined his family business as the director of Karamchand Premchand Private Limited and as the managing agent for the Calico Mills. He claimed the Sarabhai Chemicals at Baroda, which fabricated synthetic substances and pharmaceuticals, as a team with Squibb. He was also associated with many pharmaceutical companies like Suhrid Geigy Limited, Sarabhai Merck Limited, Symbiotics Limited, and Standard Pharmaceuticals Limited.

Ambalal Sarabhai was the President of the Ahmedabad Mill Owner’s Association in the year 1918-19 and furthermore an individual from the Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation. He played an important role in the industrial development of the city. A number of progressive institutions, such as the Ahmedabad Textile Industry’s Research Association (ATIRA), B.M. Institute, Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad (lIMA), Calico Textile Museum, Shreyas Foundation, National Institute of Design (NID), Darpan Academy, Jyoti Sangh C.N.Vidyalaya and Majoor Mahajan enjoyed unwaveringly support of this doyen of the business community. He was awarded the Kaiser-i-Hind Gold Medal by the British Government, which he later renounced. (Prominent Individuals Of Gujarat)

Ambalal Sarabhai married Sarladevi in 1910 and fathered eight children. A man of principles and sound business judgment, he inculcated fine traditions in his children and grandchildren who took over from him, the responsibilities of the family business. He and his family gave continuous support- both personal and financial to the Indian National Congress during the freedom struggle.

AMRIT LAL HARGOVANDAS (1889-1974)

AMRITLAL HARGOVANDAS
Image Credit: Ahmedabad Education Society

 

Industrialist philanthropist and institution builder, Sheth Amritlal Hargovandas’s contribution to the city has been unmatched. After studying law he successfully governed the textile mills and trade offices. He actively participated during difficult times of the city, especially famine, flood, earthquake, and riots. He even donated generously for setting up educational institutions such as H.L Commerce College, L.D. Arts College, M.G. Science College, N.H.L. Medical College, etc. He has also been associated with ATIRA, Gandhi Smaraka Sangrahalaya, SPIER. He was also founder Vice- President of the Gujarat Chamber of Commerce and Industry in 1949.  (Prominent Individuals Of Gujarat)

BAHECHARDAS LASHKARI (1818-1889)

Scholar of Gujarati, English, Marathi, Hindi as well as Urdu languages, Bahechardas was a leading entrepreneur, who set up the second textile mill of the city at Raikhad. He even donated for building hospitals, prarthanasamaj mandirs well as educational institutions in the city. He was honored for his services during the mutiny of 1857.

SIR CHINUBHAI BARONET (1864-1916)

SIR CHINUBHAI BARONET
Image Credit: The Indian Portrait

The first Indian to receive the title of ‘Baronet in 1913, Sir Chinubhai was a multifaceted personality. Apart from industry and commerce he also devoted time to Sanskrit literature and scholars. He many educational institutions the R.C.Technical School and Madhavlal Science College. The development of Supported including Gujarat College owes a lot to him.

CHINUBHAI CHIMANLAL SHETH (MAYOR) (1909-1993)

Born on November 1, 1909, in the Lalbhai the youngest President of Ahmedabad Municipality in 1949. In the same year, Ahmedabad The municipality was converted into a corporation and Chinubhai became the first mayor of Ahmedabad.

Chinubhai’s outstanding achievements as a mayor had impressed Jawaharlal Nehru greatly. During his tenure, he expanded Dudheshwar Water Works undertook the work of widening city roads, established a milk dairy, renovated the Kankaria lake, and also built the Ahmedabad Zoo, Balvatika, a boat club, a picnic house, an open-air theatre, a lecture ground, etc. He invited public donations with which he built maternity homes, schools, and libraries for the children, gardens, and playgrounds. Chinubhai played an instrumental role in bringing the National Institute of design (N.I.D.) to Ahmedabad.  (Prominent Individuals Of Gujarat)

He invited renowned French architect Le Corbusier to design the Sanskar Kendra and the Mill Owners’ building. Simultaneously, Chinubhai built Nehru Bridge, Shahibaug underbridge, and commissioned the widening of the Subhash Bridge. He planned the Swami Vivekanand Bridge area (then called Ellis Bridge) and built 80 feet wide outer circular road. All these achievements bagged Ahmedabad a place in the architectural world map. During his presidency in Gujarat Vidya Sabha, he carried on research on “Bhagvat” with many high-ranking scholars.

GULZARILAL NANDA (1922-1946)

GULZARILAL NANDAGulzarilal Nanda’s name is firmly connected with India’s labor reforms. He got elected to the Ahmedabad Municipality and was the secretary of the Textile Labour Association in Ahmedabad from 1922 to 1946. He stressed the worker’s education and improving their standard of living. In 1937, Nanda was elected to the Bombay Legislative Assembly from Ahmedabad constituency and was appointed as the parliamentary secretary to the Chief Minister.  (Prominent Individuals Of Gujarat)

From here Nanda went on to become Labour Minister for two more terms, headed the Planning Commission, then as the Union Railways Minister and finally the Prime Minister of India. But it was from this city that he started his prolific career as the leader of the masses.

DR. HARIPRASAD DESAI (1880-1950)

Armed with an LC.PM. from Calcutta, Dr. Hariprasad Desai became a surgeon at the Ahmedabad Medical School. The first person to invite Gandhiji to Ahmedabad, Dr. Desai was imprisoned a number of times during the independence struggle. He was a board member of the Gujarat Sahitya Sabha and also headed the Gujarat Vidya Sabha. He was a member of the Mumbai legislative assembly and dean of the performing arts department in Gujarat Vidyapith. Being a part of the municipality for about twenty-five years, he also extended his services for public works like gardens, museums, libraries, and tree plantations. He has written as many as 18 books on a variety of subjects like science, philosophy, and health.

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PROMINENT INDIVIDUALS OF GUJARAT – 1

Which caste is powerful in Gujarat?

TEXTILES AND HANDICRAFTS OF GUJARAT

Hello friends, welcome to Indian Art & Culture. Today we will be Talking about Textiles And Handicrafts Of Gujarat. So let’s start…

A land rich in history, culture and industry, With an idyllic area for ocean exchange on the west coast of India and on the land routes between Delhi and Mumbai, Gujarat has been the breeding ground for an amazing an array of embroidery Weaving, dyeing and printing techniques, handicrafts made from wood, stone and metal, and folk arts of the tribal communities.

South Gujarat

textile and handicraft of Gujarat

Most of all, Gujarat is known for its textiles, sought after the world over for generations. The textiles of Gujarat were exported to Europe and tar east Asia from the port of Surat. The Mughals, the Dutch, the Portuguese, the British and the French set up trade and industry in Surat, realizing the city’s potential for producing fine artisans and the importance of its port. Today Surat is no longer a port but is still an industrial city with a major textile manufacturing base. Textile factories have mushroomed in and Around Surat, and the muti storeyed textile market on Ring road Is a hub of activity, but weavers still work in houses and Workshops making saris like the Gujee and melancholy, featuring weaves and motifs that are the result of centuries of international trading influences and the influx of immigrants. Besides silk, synthetic, art silk, and cotton saris, Surat enjoys a good reputation for its zari, typically made from pure gold or silver With artistic embroidery. Diamond polishing and Woodcrafts thrive in Surat and the towns of south Gujarat. (Textiles And Handicrafts Of Gujarat)

Central Gujarat

textile and handicraft of Gujarat

Ahmedabad has been the home of the textile industry from 1861 when Ranchodlal Chhotalal set up Ahmedabad’s first textile mill and continues to manufacture and export fabrics in large quantities. Ahmedabad has a number of large textile markets in the walled city. In little corners and alleys of Ahmedabad, traditional fabrics like the Mata-ni-Pachedi and temple curtains are hand-painted by the Vagharis, and the Chiapas continue the intricate art of block printing. 

If Surati silk saris are an epitome of Gujarati textiles, Sankheda’s lacquered furniture can be considered an important ambassador of the Woodcrafts of Gujarat. At Sankheda, the wood I rounded and painted in maroon, brown, vermilion, and other colors, and speckled with gold o silver. The array of objects made at Sankhed includes settees, chairs, swings, utensils, and decorative pieces. (Textiles And Handicrafts Of Gujarat)

A short drive north from Ahmedabad is Pethapur village on the outskirts of Gandhinagar, where wOod is carved into printing blocks. Another interesting excursion from Ahmedabad is Khambatt, along the Gulf of Cambay, where stone polishing is a hereditary art among the Sonis of the town.

North Gujarat and Surendranagar district

textile and handicraft of Gujarat

North of Ahmedabad, the town of Patan has continuously been notable for its ikkat procedure of silk weaving. Ikkat weaving involves tie-dyeing the warp threads before weaving to create designs on the finished fabrics. The precise movement of colored threads during weaving gives ikkat designs their richness. A type of ikkat Weaving commonplace of Patan is the twofold ikkat which is twice as Complex as the single ikkat. Both the warp and the weft threads are tie-dyed before they are set on the loom. This technique requires amazing precision, especially at the intersection of the warp and weft threads, and in consequence, it can take months to finish a single sari. The result is a richly patterned fabric, with both sides of the sari being identical. The double ikkat method of weaving is exclusive to a few weavers of Patan, Indonesia, and Japan, and therefore the Patola is of considerable collectible value for textile connoisseurs. Believed to have been patronized by the Solanki Rajputs in the 12th century, when the first Salvi weavers were brought to Patan from Maharashtra, the Patola of Patan found its way to the shores of southeast Asia and the nations of Europe by way of trade in medieval times. (Textiles And Handicrafts Of Gujarat)

Single ikkat silk weaving. mature weaving handloom weaving, bandhani and embroidery are more affordable textile crafts of north Gujarat and northeastern Saurashtra. Other handicrafts of the region are stone carving, brassware, and silver ornaments.

Kutch

textile and handicraft of Gujarat

The highlight of a trip to Gujarat for many travelers is the variety of handicrafts produced by the villages of Kutch district, set between the desert plains of the Rann and the coastlands of the Gulf of Kutch. The crafts of Kutch district are well known for their delightful array of colors and motifs.

Master weavers in Kutch, some of the national award winners, work on traditional pit looms and produce intricately woven fabrics for the floor, table and bed coverings, cloth bags, shawls, quilts, and dress materials. The woven fabric is printed using carved wooden blocks, filled with herbal, mineral, and other natural dyes. Bandhini tie-dye is another intricate process.

Fabric is knotted and the tied portions made resistant to color before dying, leaving behind a pattern of dots and motifs that are attractive to the eye. Rogan painting. the art of hand- painting fabrics using iron rods, thrives in some villages of Kutch. (Textiles And Handicrafts Of Gujarat)

Embroidery is the historic Living craft of Kutch, the vibrant colors and designs of the artisans of the Kutch district add a touch of color to the arid landscape around their villages. Each community has a distinct style of embroidery, using different stitches, colors, and motifs, and sometimes setting them with beads or mirrors. The Ahirs, the Rabaris, the Jats, the Mutwas, the Lohanas, and the people of the Banni region have their own embroidery techniques, and within each community, there are sub-groups who have evolved their own combinations and patterns. For centuries pastoral women have embroidered their own trousseau and embellished their dowry packages with exquisite handiwork, and today the rich embroideries of Kutch are an important source of income for many of the craft villages that run the length and breadth of the district. Occasionally the embroidered fabrics are further decorated with mirrors. Besides textiles, embroidery is done on leather for footwear, bags, and other products by the Meghwal artisans. Applique or patch-work is another popular article of production in the craft villages of Kutch.

Other handicrafts of Kutch are silverware, woodcarving and lacquered wood crafts, metalware pottery, and mud-wall painting.

Saurashtra

textile and handicraft of Gujarat

While Kutch has acquired international fame for its handicrafts, the Kathiawad peninsula too has a historic tradition of producing high-quality arts and handicrafts. The finest of these handicrafts embellished the palaces, mansions, and darbargadhs of the Maharajahs, Nawabs, and Kathi darbars of Saurashtra. Permission is required to visit the properties of the erstwhile ruling families, other than those that are heritage hotels or museums. The heritage hotels of Gondal, near the heart of Saurashtra, are decorated with Beautiful beadwork, silver brassware. town of Gondal is known for its spinning, weaving, Woodwork, silverware, and other handicrafts. Udyog Bharati is one of the centers promoting handloom woven textiles and the art of making brass and wooden patara boxes. Further south from Gondal is Junagadh where richly embroidered carpets, some of them encrusted with gems, and other royal memorabilia, can be seen at the Darbarhall museum in a converted palace. Rupayrattan at Junagadh is promoting applique and other handicrafts of Saurashtra. The Junagadh Museum has a memorable collection of folk arts. (Textiles And Handicrafts Of Gujarat)

Enroute from Gondal to Junagadh, Jetpur is a textile town known for its Screen printing and yarn dyeing factories. A few block printers still practice their intricate art at the printing units of Jetpur. Screen and block-printed textiles can be purchased at retail outlets of the printing factories. Rajkot’s Rashtriya shala, opened by the city’s erstwhile Rajput rulers, is promoting ikkat weaving and other traditional textile techniques.

Like Junagadh, Gondal and Rajkot, Bhavnagar was an important princely city of Saurashtra and has some living examples of the handiwork that the royals used in their palaces and mansions. Sihore, near Bhavnagar, has a metalware cottage industry, Palitana has an embroidery market and is a center for making harmonium reeds and Savarkundla for weighing scales. South of Bhavnagar along the Gulf coast of Cambay is the Koli villages, where the embroidery is a traditional craft, especially around Gopnath, and the town of Mahuva which enjoys a rich reputation for wood crafts. Cottage industries like the ceramics of Morvi, Rajkot, and Than, and clock assembly at Morvi, thrive in Saurashtra.

Jamnagar is well known for its high-quality Bandhini tie-and-dye. Like Kutch, Kathiawad too has a long tradition of embroidery ranging from Bhopa Rabari embroidery along the Gulf of Kutch to Koli embroidery along the Gulf of Cambay.

 Handicrafts the world over are endangered by mechanization and the electronic era, but as long as a Gujarati bride covets her Patola, the Bharwad men wear brightly embroidered clothes to attract potential bidders at the Tarnetar fair and potters make tribal horses, Gujarat will be a paradise for traditional textile and folk art connoisseurs.

KUTCH

textile and handicraft of Gujarat

Kutch district is home to more than 16 communities including the Rabaris, the Ahirs, the Sodha Rajput, the Meghwal, the Maldharis, the Samras, the Rasipotras, the Mutwas, and the Jaths, and their various sub-groups. Most of the communities are pastoral or artisan, a few being agricultural. The people of Banni live in traditional round mud huts called Bhungas, often decorated with mud wall paintings set with mirrors, with attractive interiors displaying their array of interesting furnishings, utensils, hand-made quilts, and embroidered fabrics. When the grassland and scrub bushes do not offer adequate fodder for their livestock, the Rabaris and other communities of Kutch migrate to greener pastures. The Rabari migration, called the Dang, is a massive movement of camel caravans and livestock, carrying khatlas (simple rope-beds called charpois elsewhere), utensils, and clothing. During the migration, children learn to cook, stitch, and tend livestock from their elders. (Textiles And Handicrafts Of Gujarat)

 Touring the Banni area of Kutch, and the countryside south and east of Bhuj offers a glimpse of colorful people. Rakishly turbaned herdsmen leading camel, cattle, sheep, goatand other livestock to pasture, women hard at work on embroidery and other handicrafts fora second income.

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TEXTILES AND HANDICRAFTS OF GUJARAT

WHAT IS THE HISTORY BEHIND ART AND CRAFT OF GUJARAT?

Hello friends, welcome to the Indian Art & Culture. Today we will again discuss some of the small topics of Gujarat state, “History Of Art And Craft Of Gujarat.” So let’s go ahead…

History Of Art And Craft Of Gujarat

Gujarat has a rich and long tradition of art. In fact, even if Vadodara is now known as the Kala Nagari, it was actually in Ahmedabad that the seeds of art were first sown by Ravishanker Raval much before independence. He started Gujarat Chitra Kala Sangh in his own house and encouraged the Gujarati youth to take to art. The response was overwhelming and Ravibhal was affectionately known as Kalaguru. His friendship with Bachubhai Ravat proved to be an advantage to the art, as they brought out the highly informative magazine Kumar. They crammed in every possible information in this magazine like art, architecture, poetry literature with color plates of works of art. Kumar was an easily recognized name for quite a while and influenced the taste and culture of its readers Some of his well-known students were Rasikbhai Parikh who headed an art school, Kanu Desai of V. Shantaram tame, photographers Jagan Mehta and Pranlal Patel, painter Chaganlal Jadav, cartoonist Chakor, and others. (History Of Art And Craft Of Gujarat)

Out of the entire group, Chaganlal Jadav was to Dring a revolutionary ideology in the Ahmedabadi art scene. Restless by nature, he turned to the automation of the hand and feelings when he painted an abstract series on Gandhiji. During this period, Piraji Sagara was also experimenting with mixed media materials and creating his own language by merging agonized human figures with symbols like horse, sun, fish, and scorpion. Later, another painter from Ahmedabad emerged with the amazing power of telling stories through the medium of painting. This was Amit Ambalal. A student of Chaganlal Jadav, he was successful in putting Ahmedabad on the cultural map with the use of color and a special brand of humor. Gujarat has more than fourteen fine art colleges in the state which offer a diploma in art. While the only college which offerS a degree in art is in Vadodara & faculty of fine arts at the Maharaja Sayajirao University. (WHAT IS THE HISTORY BEHIND ART AND CRAFT OF GUJARAT?)

History Of Art And Craft Of Gujarat

The faculty was created in the early fifties. Well, known names in the world of art were invited to plan the academics of art. Names like N.S.Bendre, Subramanyam, and art historian Hatan Parimobo brought to Gujarat a new vision and created a modern and fertile ground for the development of the art in the state. From images of the lovelorn Sankho Choudhuri, K.s. nayika, the images of these artists were different, heralding an era of change. Contemporary trends began to emerge with the Baroda school. In the search of a truly Indian image, forms varied from color abstractions, distortions to the narration. Names which made headlines were Bhupen Khakhar, Gulam Mohmed Sheikh, Jyoti Bhatt, Raghav Kaneria, Jeram Patel, Nagji Patel, and others. (History Of Art And Craft Of Gujarat)

By then the National Institute of Design in Ahmedabad had already become one of the foremost design schools of the country. It brought to the fore the concept of functional aesthetics in various fields of design like communication, graphics, ceramics, furniture design, exhibition design, product design, and animation. Based on the Concept of merging tradition with modernity. the institute boasts of techno-savvy studios, which handle one of the country’s biggest design projects. (History Of Art And Craft Of Gujarat)

History Of Art And Craft Of Gujarat

The latest addition to the growth of design in the state is the National Institute of Fashion Technology at Gandhinagar with a small offshoot in Surat. In a state, which is known for its textile industry, this institute fulfills a great need as it offers know-how and trained designers to the industry. The Institute works around the concept of design in context to an Indian yet global perspective, keeping in mind tradition, innovation, and the latest technology. Their yearly fashion the show has become one of the major cultural events of the state. (History Of Art And Craft Of Gujarat)

The development of art and design in Gujarat started with the seed of just an idea, which has now blossomed into a luxurious tree of art Museum and art galleries around the state are the treasure houses of contemporary artistry and showcase them from time to time. Raja Museum of Vadodara is a dream house of Ravi Varma’s paintings. Ravishankar Art Gallery boasts of Ravibhai’s painting as well as other contemporary artists. City Museum at Ahmedabad showcases the works of Ahmedabad’s artist. Ahmedabad ni Gufa is a venue for carefree activities as well as the display of M.F Hussain’s art. Herwitz Gallery Contemporary Art and Crafts as well as Archers Gallery in Ahmedabad with Gallery of Bhavnagar, Rajkot and Surat showcase creations from time to time. (History Of Art And Craft Of Gujarat)

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HISTORY OF ART AND CRAFT OF GUJARAT

 

WHAT IS THE MEANING OF RAKSHA BANDHAN?

Hello friends, welcome to Indian Art & Culture. As you all know Raksha Bandhan will come in some days. So now we are discussing What Is The Meaning Of Raksha Bandhan?. So let’s start…

RAKSHA BANDHAN

On this occasion of a pure festival and also a festival filled with happiness, lots of  Greetings and Congratulations, for the meeting of brother and sister, and along with that I extend the Greetings for Raksha Bandhan to everyone, today is a day filled with happiness, why today is a day with happiness? because today, is a special day, for the brother to shower his love on his sister, and the affection which the sister has kept inside her, to express that, this festival is an instrument for that, so today is a big day to exchange, give and take happiness, and today is also the day of the auspicious meeting of brother and sister, and seeing the auspicious meeting between the brother and sister, the family also becomes very pleased and happy. 

So today, we will discuss, about this pure festival of Raksha Bandhan, the pure festival of Raksha Bandhan says, the good day of Coconut Day, says that the virtues which we have, which are complete in their own percentages, or we are rich in our own stage, so all that happiness, affection, desires, our wishes, invocation, blessings, all this put together, on whom do we shower everything, we shower all this on whom? Our brother who is like Moon, When we love our brother or express it, we say, my brother is absolutely like the Moon, he like the Moon should shine in the sky why should he shine like the Moon? As the Moon, with its coolness, makes everyone happy, similarly, my brother too, become a person who spreads happiness to all, this is the blessing from the sister, what does the sister do? She does Aarti for him, with her both hands she takes the plate in a clockwise direction over his head. 

RAKSHA BANDHAN AARTI POOJA

Why does she do this in Raksha Bandhan? She does this, as she wants her brother, to be complete like the Moon, and rich. Firstly, Lord Ganesh is worshipped, Shri Ganeshji had a very vast intellect, he used to recognize things before time, he had the foresight, hence his power of reasoning, gave him the right decisions, similarly, I enrich my brother, with all these virtues in his intellect, with these good wishes, she does Aarti him, you sisters may have never thought, why you perform this ritual Aarti, did you ever ask yourself or your elders, by doing this ritual we give them our heart filled happiness and bless them, we extend our good wishes from our heart towards them, that my brother should always be happy, healthy, always complete with wealth whether it is physical or money, grains, clothes, he should always be enriched, because Supreme Father, Supreme Soul, who is Father to us souls, he too for us children, when we consider ourselves to be souls when we feel that we are souls, then when we do the actions through the physical sense organs, and that too. 

In the remembrance, of the Supreme Father, Supreme Soul, by taking that spiritual love, so, Supreme Father, Supreme Soul, too, whatever be the subtle treasures, of knowledge, virtues, powers, of love, whatever be the treasures, God showers it on us children and He blesses us children, so the festival of Raksha Bandhan has been connected with Coconut day, there is also one more reason, on this Raksha Bandhan day, Coconut day, The Brahmins, all the Brahmins go near the seashore or go to the rivers which have emerged from the sea, and when they go there, the symbols of Brahmins being top-notch, the second being the thread on his body and the third being, the reading of religious texts all the three rituals he does in front of the sea, and taking the pure water of the sea in his hands, he takes a vow in his mind, and through the mind, he connects with his God, he binds to God and that promise will surely be this, that he wants to keep himself free from negativity and there be positivity in his life, that he desires for, so that thread reminds him of being a Brahmin, Brahmin who is called as ‘DWIJ,’ the one who takes birth twice. 

RAKSHA BANDHAN CELEBRATION BY INDIA'S PRIME MINISTER NARENDRA MODI
RAKSHA BANDHAN CELEBRATION BY INDIA’S PRIME MINISTER NARENDRA MODI

So, on this day, Brahmins also change the thread on Raksha Bandhan, and once again whatever be the things connected with Brahmin, the virtues, nature, Sanskar, by remembering them, he takes a new thread, so my sweet sisters, my sweet brothers, today, you can shower us sisters with lots of spiritual and physical love, and will also exchange the happiness of being related, and dear sweet sisters, by tying on the wrist, this thread of love, and in this way you connect the thread of hope with him, for many births, this strong bonding with the same brother continues, with this good wishes, you tie the rakhi on the brother’s wrist, and the brother by touching your feet, by paying his respects to you, as you give him pure love, you with your spiritual, pure love protect him, you think good about him, always ask for blessings for him always, he should be happy, such good thoughts keep emerging in your mind for him. 

So. he also by thanking you is overjoyed and is very blessed to have a sister like you, and he cannot remain without giving his respect to you, and then, you give your sweet brother sweets and make him very sweet, you talk sweetly, use very loving words, and if you are not talking like that, then, today gives him the title of, ‘sweet, sweet’ and express your love for him, if you can write a song then sing it for your brother, or recite some the poem, so, express the love for your brother, not like, keep it within your mind, no, the brother will be very happy, and yes, dear brother, you too have to do the same thing,  you have to make her swing in the swing of happiness, many sisters, keep waiting, having this the hope of swing, for the past one year, like when will Raksha Bandhan come, and my brother will come to my house, so every sister is happy, every brother is happy, each family is happy today. 

WHAT IS THE MEANING OF RAKSHA BANDHAN ?

Ayes, there is one wave emerging, within, and this being, there is the sound of a few which can be heard, that I have no brother or that I had a brother, but, now he is not there, my brother is there, but he is staying very far away, he will not be able to reach me on that day, so what should I do? A very simple the answer, ‘Tumhi ho Mata, Pita Tum Hi Ho, Tum Hi Ho Bandhu Sakha Tum Hi Ho, what is the meaning of ‘Bandhu,’ God is our brother also, so, today, whichever,  god or goddess you believe in, your favorite deity, whether it is Krishna, Ram, or formless Shiv, or Shivling, whoever it may be, you with this Rakhi filled with love, tie Him this the thread of love, in the mind with great reverence and feelings, remembering God, talk with Him saying that you are my brother, and this bond of love, through this thread, you reach it to my brother, ok, my sisters, so, today what will you do? you will tie the thread of love to yourself, tie to the brother, if not, you will tie it to your favorite deity, and in this way, this festival of Raksha Bandhan, with your brother or making your favorite deity your brother, have an auspicious meeting with Him, will celebrate Raksha Bandhan. 

Maybe you may not wish, but, somewhere in the heart this does arise, that I should get some gift from the brother, what the brother will give me, this inquisitiveness will remain, and the brother too, from the point of view, of what is happening in this world, the brother also keeps this as a surprise, and he too secretly, brings some gift for the sister, and by giving the gift which she likes makes her happy, so my sweet brothers, my sweet sisters, today is your day, have a very nice and auspicious meeting with each other, celebrate through the spiritual eyes, embrace each other, celebrate, by going through memory lane, of the past incidents, enjoy with each other, celebrate by refreshing those happy moments, and with the brother, yes, the delicious food items, which the brother likes, which you have made, you feed the brother, then, the brother will feed the sister, and in this way by exchanging happiness and also exchanging good wishes, you will celebrate this festival of Raksha Bandhan. So, once again I extend Greetings and Congratulations on this pure festival to all of you.

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WHAT IS THE MEANING OF RAKSHA BANDHAN? 

 

How was Raksha Bandhan started?

ISLAM IN INDIA

Hello friends, welcome to the Indian Art & Culture. Today we will discuss about Islam In India. So let’s start…

ISLAM IN INDIA

We are going to talk about the history of the arrival of Islam in the Subcontinent If you enjoy the video, do not forget to like share and subscribe! Today more than half a billion Muslims live in the Subcontinent gathered mainly between Bangladesh and Pakistan in which they are the majority and India where they are the largest minority The other countries in the region also host Muslim communities: about two million in Sri Lanka, where the local Muslim community takes the name of “Srilankan Moors” two million in Nepal about 50,000 in Bhutan and about 400,000 in the Maldives all of the Maldivian population as Islam is the only religion recognized by the state Muslims in India represents the largest religious minority in the country roughly 15% of the total population equivalent to more than 200 million people The vast majority of them are Sunnis (85%) while 13% are Shiites and the rest divided among other minority sects. 

In India and in the Subcontinent one can find the various ramifications of Islam from the more orthodox to the more heterodox Some variants of Indian Islam contains aspects that are difficult to trace back to orthodox Islam The boundaries between Islam and Hinduism are less distinct compared to the formal doctrine since the conversion to Islam resulted in the addition of Islamic elements to pre-existing religious beliefs without changing their identity The historical contact between the Arab-Persian world and the Subcontinent has played a primary role over the centuries in shaping the modern notion of “India” For example, the European idea of India originates directly from the Arab-Persian conception Different political events in India over the last decades have placed the local Muslim minority in the spotlight for various reasons not entirely positive I will, therefore, try to shed light on this complex matter tracing the historical origins of this community, and its most important characteristics. (Islam In India)

ISLAM IN INDIA

The contact between the Subcontinent and the Arab-Persian world is much older than the birth of Islam For Arabs, the Subcontinent was simply known as ‘Hind’ This term was borrowed from the Persian that had been using it for centuries, However, for Arabs, the name ‘Hind’ didn’t indicate the modern idea of India but had a wider geographical and political significance than today, In fact, this term used to denote the whole region between Sind and Makran in Pakistan and the Indonesian archipelago and Southeast Asia The Islamic expansion led to an increase in maritime trade in the Indian Ocean with India as the center and the Middle East and China as dynamic poles This economic relation between the Arab and Indian world at the beginning of the Islamic era gradually evolved into political relations After the conquests of the 7th and 8th centuries the caliphal territory stretched from the Iberian Peninsula and North Africa to Central Asia and Sind. 

Although Muslim communities already existed in the coastal regions of Gujarat, Konkan Kerala, and Tamil Nadu the stable annexation to the caliphal domains started with the conquest of Sind, This was conquered and annexed through a military an expedition organized by the Ummayad Caliph al-Walid I and led by Muhammad Ibn Qasim in 710 AD, However, the enormous distances existing between the center of the caliphate and this frontier territory rapidly increased the autonomy of Sind from the caliphal control By the 8th century, the Muslims rulers were in a central position between the two most important economic trade nodes of that time the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean Indo-Muslim civilization emerged in the 11th century from the East Persian variant of Islam.  (Islam In India)

It was the result of the expansion of personalized Turkic Afghan and Central Asian populations penetrating in the Subcontinent from its northwestern frontier It was certainly an expansion driven by raids before it could take the aspect of a stable and territorial one Traditionally, the Muslim society of the Subcontinent is not homogeneous In fact, it comprises of three major social communities: Ashraf, Ajlaf and Arzal The Ashraf are the descendants of Muslim populations who came from abroad and is further divided between Sayyids, Shaikhs, Mughals and Pathans The Ajlaf descended from the Indian converts It is to be noted that because of the conversion aspect, they are considered inferior to the Ashraf Contrary to the egalitarian aspects advocated by the official Islamic doctrine. 

ISLAM IN INDIA

Indo-Muslim society has maintained the Hindu heritage of the social notion of untouchables and outcasts The untouchable Hindu converts occupy the third and the final category of Indo-Muslim society and they are called Arzal This hierarchy is directly related to the previous division that already existed in the caste system of the Hindu society as it will be explained later in the video This great variety and diversity among the groups that make up the Indo-Muslim community is due to the penetration of Islam in the Subcontinent from different origins The oldest variant is the “Arab” one and is present in the coastal regions of Western India of Gujarat and Maharashtra, and South India This continues to influence the language, culture and religious practices of local communities in southern India today Among these. 

The most famous is the Mappila community in Kerala and Labbai community in Tamil Nadu which have a rick folkloristic and literary history The reason why the first Islamic influence occurred in South India, was because these regions had some important seaports as a part of the trade routes that connected the Gulf and the Arabian Peninsula to Southeast Asia and China Arab merchants and travelers passed through these regions since pre-Islamic times This ancient Arab presence is also shown by the fact that in the states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu there are the oldest mosques in India and in the world, For example, the Cheraman Juma Masjid mosque in Kodungallur in Kerala, built-in 629 AD and the Palaiya Jumma Palli in Kilakarai, in Tamil Nadu, built-in 630 AD. (Islam In India)

However, the most prominent a variant which mainly represents the mainstream version of Indian Islam was the one of Persian origin This originated from the repeated invasions of Persianized populations of Mongolian Afghan and Central Asian origin from the 10th century onwards The Persian / Central Asian variant had the merit of penetrating deeply into the Indian society and culture over the centuries Or, rather, managed to “Indianize” Islam This Persian variant was very different from the Arab one Its impact over Indian history was much wider For example, it had the merit of creating all the empires and state entities for the centuries to come, This allowed the entire Subcontinent region to become an extremely dynamic commercial and cultural center. 

ISLAM IN INDIA

The Sultanate of Delhi in the 13th century was the first example of an Indo-Muslim state that attempted a subcontinental union bringing to its institutions and political culture of others “Indianized” with the help of Indian converts This process peaked with the Mughals Mughal politics, although Islamic in nature succeeded in combining Islam with the Indian substratum In this way, Islam acquired peculiar characteristics of a regional variant A true Indo-Muslim society was created with traits connected to the Islamic model and which resisted even after the Mughals Muslim rulers were mostly neutral about the conversion issue although some of them were really pushing it forward Among the rulers who were enthusiastic about the missionary work there was were Firuz Tughluq and Sikandar Lodi sultans of Delhi and the last of the great Mughals, Aurangzeb who offered to the converts rewards and career prospects Emperor Akbar instead, guaranteed Hindus the right to convert and reconvert while his son Jahangir was in favor of a peaceful encouragement of conversions As said.

In India, the spread of Islam predominantly did not happen by political constraint as a certain historical reinterpretation today would like to advertise Rather, it was the result of the work of preachers Among these, the Sufis whose formation was more ascetic was closer to the population they had to convert compared to the theologians and their rigid doctrine Most Sufi brotherhoods regarded the conversion of non-Muslims as one of their main spiritual purposes Sufi missionaries, in general, adhered to the line of “suhl-i-kul”, which means “peace with all” and preached their doctrine without making distinctions between Muslims and Hindus relying on the effectiveness of the recitation of the names and attributes of God For a minority part of the population especially in the urban areas the conversion to Islam was motivated by the attractive opportunities for social mobility that arose from belonging to the same religion as the rulers. 

ISLAM IN INDIA

However, most of the conversions took place in the rural environment especially in the North West of the Subcontinent in Gujarat, in the Gangetic plains and in Bengal The majority of these neo-Muslims of low social backgrounds were attracted primarily by Islamic social egalitarianism diametrically opposed to the rigid caste divisions of traditional Hindu society Conversion to Islam did not necessarily result in an immediate improvement of the economic conditions, In particular, we can see how the Hindus who adhered to the new faith continued to perpetuate their ancestral occupations This resulted in the introduction of the notion of caste distinction even within the Islamic society This was particularly true in the countryside The apostasy from Islam was treated with extreme severity by the Muslims with the exception of Akbar and the sultan of Kashmir, Zainul Abidin the only ones to recognize the right of Hindus to proselytize and to reconvert to their original faith For Islamic conquerors. (Islam In India)

The cult of images in India was considered as idolatry and they felt morally and religiously entitled to destroy Hindu temples in times of war This state of  beings survived until the mid-17th century The most rigid of all was Aurangzeb who also destroyed several temples in peacetime Similar discrimination was also carried out by the Hindus The most the striking case was the devastation of Punjab by Mahipal, the Raja of Delhi, in his attempt to drive the Ghaznavids away from the Subcontinent Killing of Muslims, destruction of mosques and construction of temples on their ruins occurred At the beginning of the 17th century Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi complained of the desecration of mosques including the pillaging of Akbar’s tomb which was still common practice in the 18th century., In reality, discrimination against those who did not belong to the faith of the rulers was a general practice throughout the medieval world and not peculiar to the Muslim states. 

In fact, Muslim rulers of India were quite tolerant of socio-religious matters For example, Mahmoud of Ghazna allowed his Hindu subjects to worship idols the Kashmiri sultan Zainul Abidin adopted a conciliatory policy with the Hindus abolishing the tax for non-Muslims (Jizya) prohibiting the slaughter of cows and even allowing “sati”, the immolation of the widow on the funeral pyre of the husband From the cultural-religious point of view Islam is the antithesis of Hinduism Hinduism is an aggregate of beliefs developed over the centuries starting from the Vedas up to the philosophical speculation of the Upanishad the discipline of Yoga the metaphysics of Vedanta and the passionate the devotion of Bhakti Hinduism reveals itself through the iconography, On the contrary, Islam is rather a geometric abstract and iconoclastic Islam in India despite the environmental and ethnic influences has maintained some of its original foreign characteristics over the centuries. 

The Indian Muslim is, therefore, the victim of a sort of an intellectual alienation with the feeling of not being part of the world in which he lives As if he is in India, but not of India He keeps as much as he can of the original intellectual and psychological heritage of his religious culture The interaction between Hindus and Muslims did not manage to ensure that some of them deeply acquired the essence of the others for which they remained divided The Hindus combining the openness of religious views with the bigotry of social ethics Muslims combining the openness of social behavior with their bigotry regarding religious ideas Regarding mutual tolerance and intolerance, it should not be forgotten that it was, and still is a two-way street The Brahmanic Hinduism discriminated Muslims as foreigners and impure, considering them to be the same as outcasts On the Muslim side discriminations took place on the political level.

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ISLAM IN INDIA

ARCHITECTURE AND MONUMENTS OF NORTH GUJARAT

Hello friends, welcome to Indian Art & Culture. Today we will be discussing the Architecture and Monuments Of North Gujarat. So let’s start…

After the decline of the Harrapan civilization, India entered the Vedic age. In the early centuries before and after Christ, dynasties like the Mauryan, Gupta, and Maitreya held sway and created Buddhist caves. But it was the Rajput rulers who heralded the golden period of architecture from the 8th to the 13th centuries AD. The Solanki Rajput rulers patronized some of the finest Hindu temples in India, and created unique structures for harvesting water-the Vav or stepwell, stepped tanks called kunds and stepped reservoirs called talaos. Their Jain ministers too patronized exquisite temples, of marble or local stone, dedicated to the Tirthankaras. Jain temples were built on sacred mountain summits and in wooded valleys, the breathtaking landscapes providing a pristine backdrop for the majestic architecture of these holy shrines.

the Sun temple at Modhera
The Sun temple at Modhera
 

The best known Solanki monument is the Sun temple at Modhera, commissioned in 1026 AD by Bhimadev, two centuries before the world-famous Sun Temple of Konark was built on the east coast of India. The temple has been ravaged by plunderers and natural calamities,  including an earthquake, yet it remains an outstanding monument to the architectural genius and artistic flair of the Silvas. The facades and pillars are decorated with exquisite carvings of Gods and Goddesses, birds, beasts and blossoms, and traditional erotic sculpture. The forecourt of the sanctuary is a rectangular ventured tank, 50 by 20 meters in region, sprinkled by 108 subsidiary shrines. The entrance to the temple is by a beautifully carved columned portico, leading to the Sabha Mandapa or assembly hall. The cusped curves, which turned into a component of Indo-Saracenic design after Islamic invasions into India, the corbelled rooftop the radiant arrangement of carvings depicting scenes from the Ramayana, Mahabharata, and other Hindu sagas, and the light-shadow effect given by the beautifully sculpted and organized columns, are highlights of the Sabha Mandapa. The principal beams of the sun, during the equinox, would illuminate the jeweled picture of ruler Surya in the sanctum, before the icon, was taken away by invaders. (Architecture and Monuments Of North Gujarat)

Rani ki vav
Rani ki vav

The Solanki capital was Anhilwada Patan  a town filled with temples and monuments, the generally significant among them being the Rani ki vav, a stepwell dated 1052 AD. The stepwell is a massive seven storeyed subterranean structure, with flights of steps leading to the water level, string cOursed by magnificent works of 11th-century sculpture depicting voluptuous women, Divine beings, and Goddesses of the Hindu pantheon, and the symbols of Lord Vishnu. Just above the water level are chambers, believed to have been reserved for queens and princesses to appreciate the coolness of the air floating from the outside of the water, and a stupendous sculpture of Lord Vishnu reclining on the coils of a serpent.

Sidhapur, north of Patan, was the site of Raja Sidharaj Solanki’s splendid Rudramalaya, a 12th-century temple with huge Torana arches. The temple is now largely in ruins, worth visiting to See the tapering Torana entrances of the temple complex and the nearby Bohra Muslim mansions. (Architecture and Monuments Of North Gujarat)

A fine pair of Toranas can be seen at Vadnagar, richly decorated by the exuberant sculpture of the Solanki period. The town, near the Toranas, is entered through 12-century gateways embellished with fine carvings. Near one of the gates is the 1/th century Hatkeshwar temple, and inside the town are Nagar Brahmin Havelis. Vadnagar was known tor its music, poetry, and other arts, and the famous musician due of 1ana

and Hiri who cured Tansen of the burning effects of the Deepak rag by singing the Malharrag is enshrined near the lake of Vadnagar. Tana and Riri were invited by the emperor Akbar tosing in his court and rather than refuse the request of an emperor opted 1or self-immolation. (Architecture and Monuments Of North Gujarat)

Jain complex of Taranga
The Jain complex of Taranga

Further north of Vadnagar is the Jain complex of Taranga, set in the heart of rocky hills, with huge boulders providing a spectacular backdrop for the architectural splendor of the principal temple and its subsidiary shrines. The 12th-century Ajitnath temple is one the largest Jain shrines in Gujarat, with a columned central hall and rotund lotus capitals, and an impressive dome. The Ajitnath idol has jewel eyes. The temple exteriors are embellished by panels of fabulous carvings, Some of the best sculpture being the ones portraying voluptuous women. (Architecture and Monuments Of North Gujarat)

Among the marble temples of north Gujarat, a really fine example is the Jain complex at Kumbhariyaji, near Ambaji, which contains five temples dated to 1062-1134 AD phase of the Solanki empire. The temples have corbelled interior domes, with carvings in concentric circles rising to the apex of the dome, superimposed by carved brackets of detailed Godly, human, faunal, and supernatural figures. Heavy pendants hang from the center of the main dome. Delicate marble carvings are a feature of this temple complex.

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ARCHITECTURE AND MONUMENTS OF NORTH GUJARAT

Story Of The Jew Community In Kerala ( Judaism)

Hello friends, welcome to Indian Art & Culture. Today we will be talking about the Story Of The Jew Community In Kerala ( Judaism). So let’s start…

The Jew Community In Kerala ( Judaism)

When Israel was born in 1948, it triggered a migration of Jews from Kerala back to their ancient homeland. Thus, from the 1950s onwards members of a community, that had assimilated itself into the social and cultural life of Kerala, began their journey to the Promised Land, a dream they had nurtured through generations. This adoptive land, however, has preserved the relics of their history for the sake of those Jews who come back in search of their roots, and also for historians as well as travelers. (Story Of The Jew Community In Kerala ( Judaism))

Even today, the Jewish Street, the synagogues, and the museum’s stand bathed in their past glory, and wait patiently for their visits. Some believe that the Jews came to Kerala during the time of King Solomon. That is even before the time of Jesus Christ. Others argue that they came to Kodungalloorin Kerala in 70 CE, after the temple of Jerusalem, was destroyed. Whatever that maybe the fact is, they lived in this land for centuries. While the new generation has returned to the native soil, their forebears- like Sarah Cohen-who held Kerala close to their hearts, lived, and died here. The first sites that greet those who come in search of Jewish history in Kerala are the Jewish Street in Mattancherry and the Mattancherry synagogue, known locally as the “Pardesi” synagogue.

"Pardesi" synagogue
“Pardesi” synagogue

The areas where the Jews settled down were known as the Jew Street and the Jew town. The synagogue, which has now been converted into a museum, and the street are preserved as heritage structures. They open the doors to the history of those times when they were vibrant spaces. The Mattancherry synagogue built-in 1568, is 450 years old and is the oldest in the British Commonwealth. It was the most prominent one among the synagogues in Kerala. the structure of the synagogue shows the influence of Kerala’s architectural style, its floor is laid with Chinese handcrafted tiles, nearly a thousand a number, each with its own unique design. Italian and Belgian lamps that came crossing the seas, light up its interiors. (Story Of The Jew Community In Kerala ( Judaism))

The Holy Ark in the synagogue that Rabban, the Jewish leader, built with the help of the regional rulers contains the Pentateuch, the first five books of Jewish Scripture called the Torah, inscribed in rolls of goatskin. These parchments are 100 to 300 years old. Gan Shalom [Garden of Peace] is a spot which holds the history of Jewish life that stretch across centuries, through many generations. This silent space, that cradles stories of the past attracts researchers and historians. The Kadavumbhagam synagogue, one of the earliest synagogues in Ernakulam, was built in the heart of the town in 1200, after the Jews, migrated from Kodungalloor. Unlike the other synagogues, this does not have a Padippura, arched gateway. Its frontage is hexagonal in shape. It is believed that there was a Hebrew press and a 300sovereign gold Torah breastplate here.

Padippura
Padippura

The Paravur synagogue is said to have been built in 1164. Its architecture displays a confluence of Kerala and Jewish styles. Today, it is a museum that showcases Jewish religious practices and the history of Jewish life as it was lived in the coastal belt of Kerala. One has to cross the Padippuraand walk along the pathway to reach the synagogue. When the synagogue fell into disuse the bimah (pulpit) was transported to Israel. Another was put in its place later. The second story has another bimah, meant exclusively for women. The Paravur synagogue was unique in that it housed the areligious training center that was the most important one in Kerala. On leaving Kodungalloor in the 13th century, the Jews built a synagogue in Chendamangalam in 1420. It was destroyed in a fire and rebuilt in 1614. It has now been taken over by the State Department of Archaeology and named a protected monument. The Chendamangalam synagogue is the first Jewish Museum in India. This land continues to preserve the memories of Jewish history and tradition for the sake of the new generations.  

 

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STORY OF THE JEW COMMUNITY IN KERALA (JUDAISM)